We finally completed the Marsican bear karyotype. We have cultured bear cells in vitro, blocked them during mitosis and took a picture of the chromosomes. The Marsican bear, like all mammals, has male heterogamy. This means that, just as in humans, males have XY sex chromosomes while females have XX. These data will be necessary to evaluate the completeness of the genome that we will assemble and to perform a preliminary assignment of scaffolds to chromosomes.